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openssh (70) Versions 2.11.3

Installs and configures OpenSSH client and daemon

cookbook 'openssh', '= 2.11.3', :supermarket
cookbook 'openssh', '= 2.11.3'
knife supermarket install openssh
knife supermarket download openssh
Quality 50%

openssh Cookbook

Cookbook Version
CI State

Installs and configures OpenSSH client and daemon.


This cookbook is maintained by the Sous Chefs. The Sous Chefs are a community of Chef cookbook maintainers working together to maintain important cookbooks. If you’d like to know more please visit or come chat with us on the Chef Community Slack in #sous-chefs.



  • Debian/Ubuntu
  • RHEL/CentOS/Scientific/Oracle
  • Fedora
  • FreeBSD
  • Suse Enterprise Linux
  • openSUSE / openSUSE leap
  • AIX 7.1
  • Windows


  • Chef 12.1+


  • iptables



Installs openssh packages, manages the sshd config file, configure trusted ca keys, configure revoked keys, and starts/enables the sshd service.


Creates an iptables firewall rule to allow inbound SSH connections.


Apply the default recipe to the node's run_list to ensure that the openssh packages are installed, sshd is configured, and the service is started and enabled

Attributes List

The attributes list is dynamically generated, and lines up with the default openssh configs.

This means anything located in sshd_config or ssh_config can be used in your node attributes.

  • If the option can be entered more then once, use an Array, otherwise, use a String. If the option is host-specific use a Hash (please see below for more details).
  • Each attribute is stored as ruby case, and converted to camel case for the config file on the fly.
  • The current default attributes match the stock ssh_config and sshd_config provided by openssh.
  • The namespace for sshd_config is node['openssh']['server'].
  • Likewise, the namespace for ssh_config is node['openssh']['client'].
  • An attribute can be an Array, a Hash or a String.
  • If it is an Array, each item in the array will get it's own line in the config file.
  • Hash attributes are meant to used with ssh_config namespace to create host-specific configurations. The keys of the Hash will be used as the Host entries and their associated entries as the configuration values.
  • All the values in openssh are commented out in the attributes/default.rb file for a base starting point.
  • There is one special attribute name, which is match. This is not included in the default template like the others. node['openssh']['server']['match'] must be a Hash, where the key is the match pattern criteria and the value should be a Hash of normal keywords and values. The same transformations listed above apply to these keywords. To get improved sorting of match items, you can prefix the key with a number. See examples below.

Dynamic ListenAddress

Pass in a Hash of interface names, and IP address type(s) to bind sshd to. This will expand to a list of IP addresses which override the default node['openssh']['server']['listen_address'] value.

Examples and Common usage

These can be mixed and matched in roles and attributes. Please note, it is possible to get sshd into a state that it will not run. If this is the case, you will need to login via an alternate method and debug sshd like normal.

No Password logins

This requires use of identity files to connect

"openssh": {
  "server": {
    "password_authentication": "no"

Change sshd Port

"openssh": {
  "server": {
    "port": "14188"


"openssh": {
  "server": {
    "match": {
      "Address": {
        "password_authentication": "yes"
      "Group admins": {
        "permit_tunnel": "yes",
        "max_sessions": "20"

Match with sorting

"openssh": {
  "server": {
    "match": {
      "0 User foobar": {
        "force_command": "internal-sftp -d /home/%u -l VERBOSE"
      "Group admins": {
        "force_command": "internal-sftp -d /home/admins -l VERBOSE"

Enable X Forwarding

"openssh": {
  "server": {
    "x11_forwarding": "yes"

Bind to a specific set of address (this example actually binds to all)

Not to be used with node['openssh']['listen_interfaces'].

"openssh": {
  "server": {
    "address_family": "any",
      "listen_address": [ "", "::" ]

Bind to the addresses tied to a set of interfaces

"openssh": {
  "listen_interfaces": {
    "eth0": "inet",
    "eth1": "inet6"

Configure Trusted User CA Keys

"openssh": {
  "ca_keys": [
    "ssh-rsa key... ca_id_1",
    "ssh-rsa key... ca_id_2"

Configure Revoked Keys

"openssh": {
  "server": {
    "revoked_keys": [
      "ssh-rsa key... user_key_1",
      "ssh-rsa key... user_key_2"

Host-specific configurations with hashes

You can use a Hash with node['openssh']['client'] to configure different values for different hosts.

"client": {
  "*": {
    "g_s_s_a_p_i_authentication": "yes",
    "send_env": "LANG LC_*",
    "hash_known_hosts": "yes"
  "localhost": {
    "user_known_hosts_file": "/dev/null",
    "strict_host_key_checking": "no"
  "": {
    "user_known_hosts_file": "/dev/null",
    "strict_host_key_checking": "no"
  "other*": {
    "user_known_hosts_file": "/dev/null",
    "strict_host_key_checking": "no"

The keys are used as values with the Host entries. So, the configuration fragment shown above generates:

Host *
SendEnv LANG LC_*
HashKnownHosts yes
GSSAPIAuthentication yes
Host localhost
StrictHostKeyChecking no
UserKnownHostsFile /dev/null
StrictHostKeyChecking no
UserKnownHostsFile /dev/null
Host other*
StrictHostKeyChecking no
UserKnownHostsFile /dev/null

SSH Subsystems

Configure multiple SSH subsystems (e.g. sftp, netconf):

"openssh": {
  "server": {
    "subsystem": {
      "sftp": "/usr/lib/openssh/sftp-server",
      "appX": "/usr/sbin/appX"

Former declaration of single subsystem:

"openssh": {
  "server": {
    "subsystem": "sftp /usr/lib/openssh/sftp-server"


This project exists thanks to all the people who contribute.


Thank you to all our backers!


Support this project by becoming a sponsor. Your logo will show up here with a link to your website.

Dependent cookbooks

iptables >= 7.0

Contingent cookbooks

amoeba_basenode Applicable Versions
cafe-core Applicable Versions
common_auth Applicable Versions
duo-unix Applicable Versions
duounix Applicable Versions
gitlab Applicable Versions
gitlab-shell Applicable Versions
gitlabhq Applicable Versions
google-authenticator Applicable Versions
linux-basic Applicable Versions
linux_basic Applicable Versions
mw_server_base Applicable Versions
nmdbase Applicable Versions
openldap Applicable Versions
openssh-lpk Applicable Versions
paramount Applicable Versions
platformstack Applicable Versions
privx Applicable Versions
r1337-sshconfig Applicable Versions
realmd-sssd Applicable Versions
sanity Applicable Versions
server-base Applicable Versions
sftp Applicable Versions
sparkleshare Applicable Versions
stack-base Applicable Versions
survivor Applicable Versions
ut_base Applicable Versions
zenoss Applicable Versions

openssh Cookbook CHANGELOG

This file is used to list changes made in each version of the openssh cookbook.

2.11.3 - 2023-08-05

  • resolved cookstyle error: attributes/default.rb:120:58 refactor: Chef/RedundantCode/MultiplePlatformChecks ## 2.11.2 - 2023-08-04

Standardise files with files in sous-chefs/repo-management

2.11.1 - 2023-08-04

  • Disable PAM option on Windows

2.11.0 - 2023-08-01

  • Add Windows Support

2.10.18 - 2023-07-10

2.10.17 - 2023-05-16

2.10.16 - 2023-04-17

2.10.15 - 2023-04-07

Standardise files with files in sous-chefs/repo-management

2.10.14 - 2023-04-01

2.10.13 - 2023-04-01

2.10.12 - 2023-04-01

Standardise files with files in sous-chefs/repo-management

2.10.11 - 2023-03-20

Standardise files with files in sous-chefs/repo-management

2.10.10 - 2023-03-15

Standardise files with files in sous-chefs/repo-management

Standardise files with files in sous-chefs/repo-management

2.10.9 - 2023-02-23

Standardise files with files in sous-chefs/repo-management

2.10.8 - 2023-02-23

Remove delivery

2.10.7 - 2023-02-16

Standardise files with files in sous-chefs/repo-management

2.10.6 - 2023-02-14

2.10.5 - 2023-02-14

Standardise files with files in sous-chefs/repo-management

2.10.4 - 2022-12-08

Standardise files with files in sous-chefs/repo-management

Standardise files with files in sous-chefs/repo-management

2.10.3 - 2022-02-10

  • Standardise files with files in sous-chefs/repo-management

2.10.2 - 2022-02-08

  • Remove delivery folder

2.10.1 - 2022-02-01

  • Update tested platforms

2.10.0 - 2022-01-24

  • Improved sorting of Match objects in sshd_config

2.9.2 - 2021-08-30

  • Standardise files with files in sous-chefs/repo-management

2.9.1 - 2021-06-01

  • Standardise files with files in sous-chefs/repo-management

2.9.0 - 2021-02-25

  • Sous Chefs Adoption
  • Cookstyle fixes

2.8.1 (2019-10-03)

  • Expand platform testing to the latest platforms - @tas50
  • Move template files out of the default directory - @tas50
  • Remove deprecated recipe and long_description metadata - @tas50
  • Remove EOL opensuse platform from the metadata - @tas50
  • Cookstyle fixes in the library - @tas50
  • Add RHEL 8 docker container support - @tas50

2.8.0 (2019-05-06)

  • This release greatly improves the default attributes on openSUSE/SLES systems
  • Update test kitchen config - @tas50
  • Add code owners file - @tas50
  • Cookstyle fixes - @tas50
  • Remove testing of EOL Ubuntu 14.04 - @tas50
  • Move the service name to a helper - @tas50
  • Fix the roaming test for Amazon Linux 2 - @tas50
  • Add opensuseleap 15 testing and Chef 14 testing - @tas50
  • Disable roaming on SLES 15 as well - @tas50
  • Support generating ssh keys in opensuse 15 containers - @tas50
  • Move use_roaming attribute default logic to a helper - @tas50
  • Configure the subystem properly on SUSE platform family - @tas50
  • Move ssh host key determination to a helper with SLES 15 support - @tas50
  • Make sure we return true when supported - @tas50
  • Modernize the specs for the new ChefSpec release - @tas50
  • Add platform version helpers for readability - @tas50
  • Default specs to 18.04 - @tas50
  • Avoid FC warning - @tas50
  • Disable opensuse 15 testing for now - @tas50

2.7.1 (2018-11-01)

  • Add support for multiple subsystems
  • Use template verify property instead of notify to handle configuration verification so we don't ever template out a non-functional config

2.7.0 (2018-07-24)

  • Add support for array values under a host hash and added indentation for host values

2.6.3 (2018-03-19)

  • Support Amazon Linux 2 in containers

2.6.2 (2018-03-02)

  • Swap Chef 12 testing for Chef 14 testing
  • Create the privilege separation directory on debian/ubuntu, which is not always there on Docker images
  • Add Ubuntu 18.04 testing

2.6.1 (2017-11-30)

  • Generate missing ssh keys on amazon linux as well. This impacts containers where ssh keys have not already been generated

2.6.0 (2017-10-18)

  • Fixed trusted user CA key documentation
  • Collapse the smartos hostkey attributes into the centos 6 attributes since they were the same values
  • Make sure the hostkey attribute works when RHEL 8 comes out by not constraining the version check too much
  • Run sshd-keygen on Fedora / CentOS 7 when host keys are missing. Why would keys be missing? Well if you've never run sshd then you don't have keys on RHEL/Fedora. This happens primarily when you try to Chef a container
  • Add Testing on Chef 12 to Travis so we test both 12 and 13
  • Move the flat helper methods into an actual library that is properly loaded

2.5.0 (2017-09-16)

  • Added TrustedUserCAKeys and RevokedKeys support
  • Enabled Foodcritic FC024 again
  • Generate keys on systemd boxes before validating configs by starting sshd-keygen service if it exists. This prevents failures in docker
  • Use multipackage installs to install client/server packages to speed up the chef run
  • Add Debian 9 testing in Travis
  • Add more platforms to Chefspecs, avoid deprecation warnings, and greatly speed up specs

2.4.1 (2017-05-22)

  • Fix a bug that resulted in RHEL 6 cert paths being incorrect and expanded testing to check ssh login behavior not just config validation.

2.4.0 (2017-05-11)

  • Config fixes for the sshd config on Amazon Linux
  • Use the correct ssh host keys on RHEL 6
  • Use the right sftp subsystem on Debian and Fedora
  • Make sure the hostkeys are set on Debian/Ubuntu

2.3.1 (2017-04-20)

  • Fix AIX service to skip enable since AIX does not support enable

2.3.0 (2017-04-19)

  • Add basic AIX support

2.2.0 (2017-04-03)

  • Test with Local Delivery instead of Rake
  • Initial Amazon Linux support for Chef 13

2.1.1 (2017-01-03)

  • Fix for sftp on rhel
  • Add all supported SUSE releases to the readme and metadata

2.1.0 (2016-09-18)

  • Add support for multiple sshd ports.
  • Switch to kitchen-dokken for integration testing in Travis CI
  • EL7 intentionally lacks of auto-gen'd DSA key
  • Fix commented default for ciphers and macs
  • Add chef_version metadata
  • Remove hostnames from the templates
  • Basic Mac OS support
  • Avoid node.set deprecation warnings
  • Require Chef 12.1+
  • Fix inspec tests
  • Remove the service provider logic that isn't necessary in Chef 12
  • Set the sftp subsystem on Ubuntu

2.0.0 (2016-03-18)

  • Don't set the Roaming No directive on RHEL systems before 7.0 as they ship with a sshd release which does not handle this directive
  • Depend on the newer iptables cookbook, which bumps the required Chef release for this cookbook to 12.0+

1.6.1 (2016-01-20)

  • Restored sshd restarting post config change

1.6.0 (2016-01-14)

  • Removed the default['openssh']['rootgroup'] attribute and instead use root_group which was introduced in Chef 11.6.0
  • UseRoaming no is now set in the client config to resolve CVE-2016-0777 and CVE-2016-0778
  • Converted bats integration test to 2 suites of Inspec tests
  • Added a libary to sort sshd_config entries while keeping port at the top to prevent sshd from failing to start

1.5.2 (2015-06-29)

  • Use the complete path to sshd when verifying the config file since sbin may not be in the path

1.5.0 (2015-06-24)

  • Perform a config syntax check before restarting the sshd so we don't break remote access to hosts
  • Add support for Ubuntu 15.04+ with systemd
  • Added a chefignore file
  • Added Gitter badge for asking questions in a Gitter chat room

1.4.0 (2015-05-01)

  • 42 - Fixed support for SmartOS
  • 46 - Correct ArchLinux service name
  • 43 - Correct OpenSSH server package name on RHEL, Fedora
  • 31 - Allow included iptables rule to use the same port number if defined in attributes.
  • 41 - Fix default recipe order
  • 47 - Fix up iptables rule
  • 49 - Fixed the print_last_log attribute in the Readme
  • Updated Test Kitchen config with all supported platforms
  • Updated Test Kitchen / Foodcritic / Rubocop / Berkshelf depedencies in the Gemfile
  • Replaced Travis Ruby 1.9.3/2.0.0 testing with 2.1.5/2.2.0
  • Resolved all Rubocop warnings

v1.3.4 (2014-04-23)

  • [COOK-4576] - No way to override AuthorizedKeysFile
  • [COOK-4584] - Use Upstart on Ubuntu 12.04
  • [COOK-4585] - skip match block in template if empty or unset
  • [COOK-4586] OpenSSH Gentoo support



  • COOK-3995 - sshd_config template needs ordering
  • COOK-3910 - ssh fails to start in Ubuntu 13.10
  • COOK-2073 - Add support for Match block






  • COOK-3304 - Fix error setting Dynamic ListenAddresses



  • [COOK-2647]: port_ssh iptables template has no corresponding recipe


  • [COOK-2225] - Add platform_family suse


  • [COOK-1954] - Fix attribute camel case to match man sshd_config
  • [COOK-1889] - SSH restarting on each chef run due to template changes


  • [COOK-1663] - Configurable ListenAddress based off list of interface names
  • [COOK-1685] - Make default sshd_config value more robust


  • [COOK-1014] - Templates for ssh(d).conf files.


  • Current public release

Collaborator Number Metric

2.11.3 passed this metric

Contributing File Metric

2.11.3 failed this metric

Failure: To pass this metric, your cookbook metadata must include a source url, the source url must be in the form of, and your repo must contain a file

Cookstyle Metric

2.11.3 passed this metric

No Binaries Metric

2.11.3 passed this metric

Testing File Metric

2.11.3 failed this metric

Failure: To pass this metric, your cookbook metadata must include a source url, the source url must be in the form of, and your repo must contain a file

Version Tag Metric

2.11.3 failed this metric

Failure: To pass this metric, your cookbook metadata must include a source url, the source url must be in the form of, and your repo must include a tag that matches this cookbook version number